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Ancient Period

In ancient time, the district or Kingdom of Jalandhar comprised the whole of the Upper Doabas from the Ravi to the Satluj. According to the Padama Purana, as quoted by General Conningham the country takes its name from the great Daitya King Danava Jalandhara the son of the Ganga by Ocean.

The whole of Punjab and the area of present Jalandhar District was part of the Indus Valley Civilization. Harappa and Mohenjodaro are the sites where remains of the Indus Valley Civilization have been found extensively. The archaeological exploration made during the recent years have pushed the antiquity of the Jalandhar District of the Harappa period. On the basis of surface exploration, the following new sites have been bought on the Archaeological map of India and the traces of the self-same people as at Harappa and Mohenjodaro have also been detected in Jalandhar District .

Medieval Period

AD 1296-1316 :During the reign of Ala-Ud-din Khilji, is one of the numerous Mughal invasions, the invaders under Dua were defeated near PHAGWARA by Ulugh Khan and Zafar Khan in AD 1297

AD 1398 :In consequence of the sack of Delhi by Timur, the house of Tughlok had fallen

AD 1416 :Malik Tughan assassinated the Governor of Sirhind, but was driven into the hills of Malik Daud and Zirak Khan.

AD 1417 :Malik Tughan returned with a considerable army and besieged Sirhing, Zirak Khan was sent against him by Khizr Khan (AD 1414-1421) of Delhi, and on his approach be retreated towards the hills. He was then, it is stated, allowed to retain possession of Jalandhar

AD 1419 :Tarikh-I-Mubarak Shahi mentions Tughan, Raja of the Turk-bachrhas of Jalandhar, as aiding Sultan Shah Lodhi, Governor of Sirhind and uncle of Behloi Lodhi, against a pretender, who had assumed the name of Sarang Khan and raised a rebellion in the mountain of Bajwara near Hoshiarpur, which were then depended on Jalandhar.

AD 1420 :Tudhan again revelled against Khzir Khan besieged Sirhind, and overran the country as far as Mansurpur and Payal. Malik-Khair-ud-din was sent against him from Delhi and was joined at Samana by the forces of Zirak Khan, and Tughan retreated, crossing the Satluj, at Ludhiana. But the river being low, the royal forces followed on which he fled into the country of Jasrath KhoKhar, and his wife was given to Zirak Khan

AD 1421 :Zirak Khan, the then Governor of Jalandhar was obliged to withdraw into the fort of Jalandhar, on the approach of Jasrath Khokhar, who after a year recorded the river and marched against him. He next besieged Sultan Shah Lodhi in Sirhind, but on the approach of the new Emperor Mubarak Shah raised the siege and released Zirak Khan at Ludhiana

AD 1431-31 :Jasrath defeated Malik Sikandar on the Be n near Jalandhar, took him prisoner and afterwards laid seize to Lohare, he retreated and Nasrat Khan was placed incharge of Lohare and Jalandhar. In August 1432, Jasrath returned and attacked him, but was defeated. In the Muharram of September 1432, Malik Allah Dad Lodhi, who was sent to relieve Nasrat Khan was attacked by Jasrath near phagwara.

AD 1441 :Muhammad Shah confirmed Bahlol Lodhi of Sirhind in the Governership of Lahore and Dipalpur and sent him against Jasrath. But Behlol Lodhi came into terms with the Khokhar Chief, revolted and remained independent and finally in AD 1450 became sovereign of Delhi.

AD 1445- 51  :India was split into a number of independent states at the time of Alauddin Alam Shah. The Sultanate of Delhi had long before the rise of the Sayyids been considerably diminished in its size and strength. At that time, Sarang Khan in the Bist Jalandhar Doab created disturbances, which has to be crushed under the personal direction of the Sultan.

AD 1524 :On Babar’s fourth invasion of India in the year, he gave Jalandhar and Sultanpur in Jagir to Daulat Khan Lodhi as whose instigation he had come.

AD 1540 :Humayun was expelled by Sher Shah. His retreat was covered at Jalandhar by his brother, Mirza Hindal, who was finally obliged to retire before the Afghans, who crossed the Beas at Sultanpur.

AD 1555 On Himayun’s return in this year, Bairam Khan was sent against an Afghan detachment at Hariana in the Hoshiarpur District and after driving it back on Jalandhar, he advanced and occupied the surrounding country.

AD 1556-1605 :On the defeat of Sikandar Sur at Sirhind and his flight to the hills, Shah Abu Maali was sent to the Jalandhar to hold him in check. But instead of staying there, he advanced to Lahore and thus gave Sikandar Sur an opportunity of collecting of army and making another effort to secure his throne. In consequence, Akbar was sent incharge of Barian Khan to the Punjab. After receiving the submission of the Raja of the Kangra, Akbar took up his residence at Jalandhar, where among others, Kamal Khan, a grandnephew of Jasrath Khokhar waited on him and was well received. Akbar now called to the east of meet Hemu, and during his absence, Sikandar Sur defeated Khizr Khan, Governor of Lahore, at Chamiari. Barian Khan, who had been appointed Khan Khanan of Akbar’s accession in 1560, and had been virtual sovereign lost his power and withdrew with the avowed intention of proceeding to Macca. On this way, however, irritated at some further events, he changed hi intention, and going to Dipalpur, he collected troops and prepared to attack Jalandhar. He advanced by way of Tihara, where a party of his friends under Wala Beg was defeated, by Abdulla Khan , Mughal. Shortly after, he himself was brought to action and beaten by AtgahKhan on 23 Augest 1560, at Gunachaur, near Rahon. During Akbar’s reign, copper coin were minted at Jalandhar and his minister Todar Mal, made settlement of land revenue in Jalandhar Doab. Guru Arjan Dev founded the town of Katarpur in 1539.

AD 1605 Shortly after the accession of Jahangir, hi son Khusro revelled and leaving Agra, withdrew to Lahore via Delhi. He was besienging the citadel of Lahore when heard of the Emperor’s advance guard at Sultanpur, and at once marched for the Bea. When he reached Bhairowal, on that river, the imperical forces had already crossed and battle took place in which he was defeated. During Jahangir’s reign(1605-27), Jalandhar Doab received special attention because of Nurjahan’s attachment with Nurmahal. She had been brought up there and among other things, she got a big Serai built there.

AD 1627-1658 :Under Jahangir’s successor, Shah Jahan, the Serai and Dakani was built on high road between the Delhi and Lahore. Many villages were founded. The new town of Phillaur dates from the reign of Shah Jahan, when its site, then covered with ruins, was selected for on of the Serai on the imperial road from Delhi to Lahore.

AD 1632 :Guru Teg Bahadur was married to Mata Gujri daughter of Lal Chand, Khatri of Kartarpur on 15 Asuj 1689 Bikram.

AD 1634 :The battle of Kartarpur was fought between Mughal troops and Guru Hargobind. The imperial troops were routed and both Painda Khan and Kala Khan were killed.During the rest of the 17th Century, Jalandhar remained firmly attacked to the Delhi Empire. With the death of Aurangzeb in 1707. Mughal Empire began to lotter.

AD 1710 :Banda Bahadur received appeals from the peasants of the Jalandhar Doab to help them against the Mughal Faujdar, Shams Khan of Jalandhar. The news of Banda’s return was enough to put heart into the Sikhs and they rose to throw off the yoke of Mughals. Shams Khan was defeated in Rahon.

AD 1716 :The capture and execution of Banda Bahadur and his followers in the year 1716, and the persecution of the Sikhs that followed, completely crushed them. But the Sikhs were temporarily subdued.

AD 1738- 39 :After the invasion of Nadir Shah during which he put Nurmahal to ransom, the Sikhs again appeared in arms. But after a temporary success, they were defeated by Adina-Beg, who had been appointed Governor (Faujdar) of the Jalandhar Doab.

AD 1748 :Adina-Beg and the leaders of the more important Sikh confederacies were also appossed to Nadir Shah who was finally defeated in 1748 near

Sirhind by Muin-ul-Mulk (popularly known as Mir Mannu ), the son of the grand Wazir, and obliged to evacuate the Punjab

AD 1748 – 1752 :Mir Mannu became a governor of Punjab and ruled from 1748 to 1752, retaining Adina Beg as his Deputy in the Jalandhar Doab. Jassa Singh Ramgharia in 1752 took service with Adina Beg and with all the leaders of the Confederacy, except one, Tara Singh, helped him to defeated the Ahluwalias, Kanayas and Sukerchakias at Makhowal. Adina Beg is said by one account to have given him charge of the large tract in the Jalandhar Doab of which the subsequently became master.

AD 1755 :After the death of Mir Mannu in 1752, the Governorship of Lahore was held by his widow Murad Begum on the part of Afghan King till 1755, when she was treacherously seized by her son-in-law, the Wazir of Delhi. This led to the fourth invasion of Ahmad Shah, during which he plundered Nurmahal and slaughtered its inhabitants.

AD 1756 :Adina-Beg with the assistance of Jassa Singh Ahluwalia took possession of Jalandhar and defeated the Afghan General Sarbuland Khan, who had been left in charge. On his back to Kabul, Ahmad Shah had pillaged and brunt Kartarpur.

AD 1757 :During the year, the Sikhs under Badbhag Singh, with the connivance of Adina Beg, in the revenue treated Jalandhar similarly. But though supported by Sikhs, Adina Beg found his position precarious and called in the assistance of the Maratha leader, Regoba. The Marathas expelled the Afghans and occupied the whole of Punjab. In 1758 Adina Beg was made the Governor of Punjab and died at the end of the year, leaving no son to succeed him.

AD 1759 :The era of Sikh Confederacies (Misls) which succeeded that of foreign domination had begun in the Doab in this year, immediately after the death of Adina Beg. There were twelve Misls, i.e. (1) The Nakais, (2) The Nishanwalias, (3) The Kanayas (4) The Sukrchakias (5) The Shahids (6) The Bhagins (7) The Phulkians (8) The Ahluwalias (9) The Rmagharias (10) The Faizullapurias or Sinhgpurias (11) The Karora Singhias and (12) Dallewalias. The Kanahayas from some time held a large tract in the upper part of the Doab, from which they had been ousted by the Ramgharias. Sukerchakia in the person of Ranjit Singh, became master of whole upper Doab. The connection of the Bhangis Misl with Jalandhar was almost equally sight. Lehna Singh, the Principal leader of one branch of this Confederacy was a native of Mustfapur, a village, near Kartarpur in the Jalandhar District.

AD 1760 :Tara Singh Gheba captured Dakhni in this year from Sharf-ud-din, an Afghan of Jalandhar. After that he marched towards the east of the Jalandhar and fixed his residence there.

AD 1761 :Ahmad Shah invaded India for the fifth time, drove out the Marathas and at the Battle of Panipat destroyed forever their chance of being again masters of the Punjab,. He returned to Kabul laeving Buland Khan, Governor of Lahore and Zain Khan, Governor of Sihind. By the time, the Sikhs were so strong that they began to built forts all over the Country. They defeated Khwaja Ubed, who was command at Lahore.

AD 1762 :Karora Singh, one of the founder of the Karora Singhias Misl was a Virk Jat (some say a Khatri) and belonged originally to the Faizullapiria confederacy. He made himself independent and took possession of Hariana and Sham Churasi in the Hoshiarpur District and had also lands in the north of the Jalandhar, where the confederacies continued to be represented by the Sardars of Laroya and Naugaja in Jalandhar, and of Sirhal Kazian, in Nawashahr. He was killed and was succeed by Sardar Baghel Singh who retuned to the Punjab and acquired the country about Talwan in south-west of Phillaur Tehsil. Amad Shah Abdali appeared for the sixth time and falling on the combined Sikh forces near village Kup (district Sangrur) where they were engaged in hostilities with Zian Khan inflicted on them the most terrible defeated they had ever experienced. This holocaust of 5 February 1762, ios Known to the Sikhs as the Vada Ghallughara ( the great massacre). Howerver, when Ahmad Shah had gone back to Kabul, leaving Saadat Khan, Government of Jalandhar, the Sikhs came together again. They defeated and slew Zain Khan near Sirhind in December 1763. This victory established Sikh independence.

AD 1764-67 :Though Ahmed Shah returned in 1764 and again in 1767 when he made the Katoch Rajput Chief, Ghamand Chand Governor of jalandhar,he did not recover any substantial power and as far as the Jalandhar Doaba is concerned, Afgan sovereignty, even in name, ended in the latter year.

AD 1772 :The Dallewalia chif was on inimate terms with the Phulkian family of Patiala as Bibi Chand Kaur, daughter of Raja Amar Singh of that state was married to his son, Dasondha Singh. The Dallewalia Chief alongwith others chiefs, came to the assistance of Amar Singh, when the latter`s half brother Himmat Singh, had rebelled.

AD 1776 :The Ahluwalias, Kanhayas and Sukerchakias attacked the Ramgarhias, took all the country and drove Jassa Singh across the Sutluj, where he remained for seven years.

AD 1778 :When the Raja had been defeated by Sardar Jassa Singh Ramgarhia, Tara Singh was one of the Chiefs who hastened to his help. Another ally from Jalandhar Doaba was Bibi Rajinder of Phagwara. Hari Singh originally belonged to the Dallewalia confederacy.

AD 1781 :On the death if Raja Amar Singh, the Dallewalia Chief backup the rebellion of Sardar Mahan Singh against Raja Sahib Singh who was the brother of Bibi Chand Kaur, Tara Singh`s daughter-in-law. But he soon deserted the rebal Sardar who was then obliged to surrender.

AD 1783 :The Kanhayas had grown too powerful to please the Sukerchakias and the latter in alliance Jassa Singh who after some fighting, recovered his old territory.

AD 1803 :Jassa Singh Ramgarhia died in 1803 and was succeeded by his son, Jodh Singh. In 1805 Jodh Singh assisted Lord Lake when he entered the Doab in pursuit of Jaswant Rao Holker, who plundered fifty of Ramgarhia villages.

AD 1807 Ranjit Singh crossed the Satluj and attacked the Rajput fort of Nariangarh in the Ambala District. Tara Singh Gheba, accompanied him got ill and died on his own way home during the siege. His death was kept secret while the body was sent in all hast to Rahon to which he belonged. According to J.D. Cunningham, Tara Singh Gheba`s widow, Rani Rattan Kaur " equaled the sister of the Raja of Patiala in spirit and she is described to have girded up her garment and to have fought, sword in hand, on the Jalandhar Doaba had been absorbed into the dominon of Ranjit Singh and made over to Dewan Mohkam Chand.

AD 1809-1811 :The Karora Singhias lost Talwan, with Shergarh and Hariana to Ranjit Singh. The Faizullapuria Misl came under Maharaja Ranjit Singh rule. In September 1811, Diwan Mohkam Chand on the part of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, supported by Ramgarhia and Ahluwalias Chiefs, took Jalandhar and other forts as Bulandpur, about 5 km north of Jalandhar and Patti at Hoshiarpur District and obliged Sardar Budh Singh to fly for safty to Ludhiana.

AD 1814-1819 :Diwan Mohkam Chand died in October 1814 and was succeeded by Moti Ram. After the death of Jodh Singh in 1816, his family began to quarrel and Ranjit Singh being asked to arbitrate, took the possession of Ramgarhia Misl. Moti Ram held the appointment till he was made the governor of Kashmir and in his place Jalandhar was taken by his son Kirpa Ram.

AD 1839 :Maharaja Ranjit Singh died.

AD 1845 – 46 :In the first Anglo Sikh War (1845-46), the Jalandhar Doab was not scene of any remarkable military event. The army of Sardar Ranjodh Singh Majithia marched through Doab was joined by the troops of Ahluwalia Chief. The crossed the Satluj at Phllaur on 17 January 1846 and after a temporary success at Badowal, were totally defeated by sir Henry Smith at Aliwal eleven days later and driven across the Sutlej at Chug, 3 km sough of Talwan. The sikhs retreated to phagwara and disappeared. After the battle, the main body of English army market for Sobraon, while Brigadier Wheeler crossed the river in pursuit of the Sikhs also near Talwan and advanced to Phillaur and occupied the fort, the keys of which had been made over to him at Talwan by Chaudhari Kutb-ud-din, who for this service got a pension and afterwords a grand of waste land, where the village of the Kutbiwal now stands, From Phillaur, the English marched to Jalandhar. The country between Sutlej and Beas was ceded to the British.

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